No charges had been filed as of Tuesday morning, but a hearing was scheduled for Dec. 18.
Anderson, through a statement issued by his attorney, said the allegation is "patently false."
In the protective order filing, the woman says she was drinking at a bar on Nov. 16 when she met Anderson for the first time. She says she was planning on taking an Uber home, but Anderson's friends "were insistent that he take" her home.
"All I remembered from the night was kissing him and vomiting for about 20 minutes," the woman wrote, per the Tulsa World. "This past weekend, I was talking to a friend about the night and started recalling images and feelings of him forcing his fingers into my vagina and feeling sick, him biting me and me not feeling like I could say anything, and trying to get away from him to put clothes on."
According to The Oklahoman, the accuser, who wrote in her statement that she is "scared" for her safety because Anderson knows where she lives, is a University of Oklahoma employee.
Anderson's attorney, Derek Chance, released a statement saying the rape accusation is untrue.
"Mr. Anderson first learned of (the woman's) request for a civil protective order late yesterday evening," Chance said in the statement.
"Mr. Anderson is shocked and disturbed by (the woman's) claims. Mr. Anderson did not, nor would he ever, force himself on any woman. There are undoubtedly true victims of sexual assault, for whom Mr. Anderson carries a tremendous amount of compassion. However, there are those accused of sexual assault which they unequivocally did not commit -- as is the case for Mr. Anderson.
"It is incumbent on our community to reserve judgment and to treat this allegation on its own merit. We are confident that when authorities have all of the information surrounding this circumstance, Mr. Anderson will be completely exonerated of any wrongdoing, and he looks forward to the conclusion of this investigation so he can focus on his obligations as a student-athlete."
The school said Monday it is aware of the police investigation.
Anderson, a redshirt sophomore, has a team-leading 960 yards and 11 touchdowns. He also has 16 receptions for 283 yards and five scores for No. 2 Oklahoma, which will face No. 3 Georgia in a College Football Playoff semifinal game at the Rose Bowl on Jan. 1.